Lowell Factory Girls of the 19th Century - ads28.com :: Ads28 Online Advertisement

Today's Post

test banner

Post Top Ad

Responsive Ads Here

Post Top Ad

Responsive Ads Here

Lowell Factory Girls of the 19th Century

Lowell Factory Girls of the 19th Century

During the first half of the 1800s, girls and young women from throughout New
England were recruited to process cotton for textile mills in Lowell,
Massachusetts. The majority female workforce was unusual for contemporary
factories. Their unique work culture came to national attention when the women
organized for workers’ rights.

The mill town was named for businessman Francis Cabot Lowell. In 1814, he
formed the Boston Manufacturing Company and constructed a textile mill along
the Charles River. Lowell passed away while the town was still small, and his
associates named their new town in his memory. The remaining business
partners expanded Lowell from a one-mill town to a busy 32-mill city. Within 20
years, they employed nearly 8,000 people.



The Boston Manufacturing Company carefully recruited young female workers.
This could be difficult since the women would be leaving their hometowns and
families, and factory laborers traditionally had low social status. The company
wanted to overcome this prejudice about factory culture. Therefore, they offered
relatively high wages and promised that boarding houses would have strict rules
(e.g., curfews and restrictions on male visitors). The factory owners also
promised “cultural activities”, including concerts, lectures, and the creation of a
group magazine. Many families sent their daughters to earn wages for their sons’
education.

Despite the terms of recruitment, many workers were displeased with their work
and housing in Lowell. One despondently wrote, “In vain I do try to soar in fancy
and imagination above the dull reality around me, but beyond the roof of the
factory I cannot rise.” The women’s workday began at 5 a.m. and ended at 7
p.m.; they averaged 73 hours of work per week! Factory ventilation was poor,
with cloth particles perpetually suspended in the air, and the noise of factory
machines was considered “frightful and infernal”.

The women’s dormitories tended to be cramped. Up to six people would share a
room. One worker described her quarters as “a small, comfortless, half-ventilated
apartment containing some half a dozen occupants”. The cultural activities
advertised by recruiters were few and far between; the women seldom
experienced the world beyond their dorms and machine rooms.

The close quarters fostered resentment, but they also helped the women build a
strong community for labor organizing. This started in 1834 when the mill
directors proposed a 15% cut in wages because of the economic depression.
The women met with each other and organized a response: they immediately
withdrew their savings, causing trouble for local banks. This tactic failed, but mill
owners learned that despite preconceptions of what “feminine” people would do,
the Lowell women were determined to stand up for their rights as workers.  With
time, their collective actions would have more practical effects.

Two years later, the directors proposed a rent increase at the boarding houses.
The female employees formed the Factory Girls’ Association and organized a
strike, complete with a protest song that addressed American liberty:

Oh isn’t it a pity, such a pretty girl as I
Should be sent to the factory to pine away and die?
Oh I cannot be a slave
I will not be a slave
For I’m so fond of liberty
That I cannot be a slave!

About 1,500 women participated in the strike, and this seriously impacted the
factory’s volume of production. The women persisted for weeks, and the mill
directors eventually rescinded their proposed rent hike.

In 1845, the Lowell women were inspired by the Ten Hours Movement in
England, which shortened factory workers’ hours. They formed the Lowell
Female Labor Reform Association. One of their first steps was to send petitions –
signed by thousands of workers – to Massachusetts lawmakers demanding an
end to their twelve-hour workdays. By 1847 they had reduced their hours by 30
minutes, and by 1853 they’d reduced the workday by a full hour.

In the long run, however, the Board of Directors won out. As the 1850s continued
with economic hardship, the factories turned to hiring Irish immigrant whom they
expected would be less likely to agitate for their rights. Still, the original Lowell
women were instrumental to the development of New England industry and labor
rights in the United States.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Domain for sale

Domain for sale
Networking (12) video (12) Dofollow Backlinks (9) Social Bookmarking Sites (9) Bookmarking Site (8) Free Directory List (8) google Adsense (8) marketing (8) Adsense Safe.Website Traffic (7) Authority Domains (7) EDU - GOV Backlinks (7) Web Directory Site (7) directory sites seo (7) Adsense (6) Domain (6) Sale Domain (6) ads28 (6) business (6) mlm (6) network (6) network marketing (6) whitehat backlinks (6) Online Dating (5) Page Rank Domain Sale (5) seo (5) Adsense ad units (4) Boost your Alexa (4) business networking (4) buy domain (4) internet marketing (4) Most famous Viral video (3) News (3) dating (3) marketing tips (3) referrals (3) Bank (2) Banks (2) Business/Job opportunity (2) Client Attraction Coach (2) Health Insurance (2) IRDA Grievance Call Centre (2) Leni Chauvin (2) Life Insurance (2) Most viewed YouTube videos (2) REAL Visitors (2) Sell PR Domains (2) Sell Premium Page Rank PR Domains (2) Usefull TollFree Numbers (2) Viral video on youtube (2) Website Traffic (2) Western Digital India Customer Care Number (2) adult dating online (2) buy twitter follower (2) customers (2) downline (2) godaddy (2) internet (2) marketing ideas (2) marketing strategy (2) money (2) professional development (2) sales (2) seo site (2) services (2) small business marketing (2) web traffic (2) Aadhaar Card (1) Aadhaar Card Toll Free Number (1) Agreement as valid Address Proof. (1) Apartment for Rent in burj khalifa (1) Apartment for sale in burj khalifa (1) Apartment in dubai downtown for rent (1) Asian Paints (1) Asian Paints Customer Care (1) BEST FUNNY NEWS (1) BLOOPERS 2016 (1) Backlinks (1) Beautiful Water Painting (1) Bharat Gas (1) Bharat Gas Customer Care Phone Number (1) Blank Space (1) Blog guest post (1) Blogger Website (1) Blogs (1) Bookmarking (1) Bookmarking service (1) Building (1) Business Website (1) Business group (1) Business organizations (1) Business-group (1) Business-organizations (1) CIBIL (1) CIBIL Customer Care (1) Carrier AC Customer Care (1) Chanakya IAS Academy (1) Chanakya IAS Academy Ahmedabad (1) Chanakya IAS Academy Coaching (1) Chanakya IAS Academy Hazaribagh (1) Chanakya IAS Academy Ranchi (1) Chanakya IAS Academy South Delhi (1) Chat (1) Click2Protect (1) Coach (1) Communication (1) Consumer Affairs Department (1) Consumer Helpline (1) Credit Information Bureau (1) Custom and Professional Blogger Website (1) Data Entry from home for money (1) Date (1) Dating Online (1) Deepak Bansal IPS - Success Speaks Episode 8 (1) Dell Customer Support (1) Desi (1) Do follow Social Bookmarking Sites (1) Dofollow Social BookMark (1) Domains (1) Ebay Customer Care (1) Ebay Customer Care India (1) Ebay Customer Care Number (1) Ebay Customer Care Number In India (1) Ebay Customer Complaints (1) Ebay Customer Service (1) Ebay Customer Support (1) FACEBOOK page LIKE (1) FIRST KISS (1) Facebook is a social networking (1) FedEx (1) FedEx Customer Care (1) Federal Bank Customer Care Number (1) Forums (1) Free Dating (1) Free Online Dating (1) Fujitsu Laptop (1) Gangnam Style (1) General Insurance (1) Get an edge (1) HDFC Life (1) HDFC Life Customers Service Number (1) HDFC Mutual Fund or Investment Services Account (1) HOW TO KISS (1) HOW TO KISS TUTORIAL (1) Health India TPA Services Toll Free number (1) Health Insurance TPA (1) Helpline Number at Amazon (1) High Authority Backlinks (1) Highlight your Service (1) Highlight your Service on seoclerks.com (1) Home Based Data Entry (1) IRDA Contact Number (1) IRDA Head Office (1) Indian (1) Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority IRDA Contact Number (1) Jab Harry Met Sejal Trailer (1) Kingson Dream (1) Kingson Dream Motivational Video (1) Know your business (1) LMFAO (1) Laugh (1) List of Non-Life Insurance Companies in India (1) List of Non-Life Insurance Companies in India (1) Listen (1) MLM Email Leads (1) MLM Lead Generation (1) MLM Leads (1) MLM Leads List (1) Man (1) Mangalayatan University Customer Care (1) Mediclaim TPA (1) Meeting friends (1) Men (1) Millionaire (1) Millionaire Dating (1) Millionaires (1) Mini Desktop Computer (1) Motivational Video (1) Myspace (1) PR Backlinks (1) Pagerank Backlinks (1) Pakistani (1) Passport Seva (1) Passport Seva Customer Care Number Toll Free (1) Paypal Customer Care‎ (1) Paypal India Customer Care‎ (1) Paypal India Customer Care‎ : 1800-212-3852 (1) Picture rating (1) Pizza Hut 50% Off Pizza Coupons‎ (1) Pizza Hut Buy 1 Get 1 Pizza Free‎ (1) Pizza Hut Coupons Promo Coupon (1) Pizza Hut Flat 50% Off Coupon‎ (1) Psy (1) RDP Mini PC (1) Registered Rent Agreement as valid Address Proof (1) Results (1) Rich (1) Rich Dating (1) Rich Men Dating (1) SBI NRI Services (1) SMS (1) SWIFT Code (1) SWIFT Code of SBI (1) Sell Buy (1) Sell Page Rank Domains (1) Selling (1) Small PC (1) South Asian (1) Stock Broker (1) Success (1) TP LINK India Customer Care Number (1) TPA For Mediclaim (1) TPA Health Services (1) TUTORIAL (1) Taylor Swift (1) The Real Secrets (1) The Real Secrets To Success (1) Time (1) Transformation Success (1) Twitter Profile Verified (1) Type at home (1) Typing Simple Data Entry (1) UID (1) UIDAI (1) UNDRESS ME (1) Ultimate Like a Boss Compilation 2015 (1) Unique Identification Authority of India (1) Vip Bookmark (1) Water Painting (1) Wealthy (1) Wealthy Man (1) Wealthy Men (1) Wealthy Men Dating (1) Web Visit (1) Western Digital (1) Western Digital India (1) ath (1) backlink (1) business card (1) business growth (1) business opportunity (1) buy Facebook like (1) buy Blogger Website (1) career advancement (1) career success (1) careers (1) careet (1) chicago dating (1) click to protect (1) coaching (1) conference (1) control your laughter (1) custom domain (1) desis (1) directory submission seo marketer (1) duplicating (1) ebook (1) effective (1) effective learning (1) elevator pitch (1) employment (1) enterprise (1) fednet toll free (1) friendship (1) google plus followers (1) home (1) home based business (1) home business (1) homebased business (1) information (1) interviewing (1) job offers (1) job search (1) joint ventures (1) kiss (1) letter of recommendation (1) letter of reference (1) letter writing (1) list of general insurance companies (1) marketing strategies (1) mentoring (1) mlm business (1) mlm business opportunity (1) mlm home business (1) mlm lead (1) mlm network marketing (1) mlm opportunity (1) networking on the internet (1) networking while finding a job (1) networkmarketing (1) networks (1) off optimization seo (1) online business (1) pNewsarty rock anthem (1) personal success (1) personalised profiles (1) profit (1) promotion (1) relationship (1) relationship building (1) residual (1) residual income (1) sales skills (1) sell Blogger Website (1) seoclerks.com (1) simplify (1) small business (1) social networking (1) steve jobs biographie (1) steve jobs biographie livre (1) steve jobs film (1) steve jobs histoire (1) steve jobs histoire de la pomme (1) strangers (1) trust (1) twitter follower (1) values (1) what do you do (1) work at home (1) work at home business opportunity mlm (1) young adults (1) youtube views (1) ‎ Bookmarking Sites (1)

Post Top Ad

Responsive Ads Here